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Material data sheet

Steel grade

Last revised: Mon, 19 Oct 2020 09:40:16 GMT

General Information

Ovako 277 is an air hardenable steel that is suitable for case hardening, nitriding or quench and tempering. By using air-hardening or gas quenching it is possible to reduce the amount of quenching distortion. Additionally the use of quenching medias such as oil and salt can be avoided, which improves both safety and environment. It is produced in two quality classes.

277L - Variant with regulated sulphur content for optimized machinability.

277Q - IQ Isotropic Quality for improved properties transverse to the rolling direction and better fatigue strength due to higher cleanliness level with a finer size distribution of non-metallic inclusions. The steel grade is made according to new process that modifies the the inclusion morphology, i.e. a lower number of elongated sulfides and reduced size distribution of oxides, both in avarage and in the spread. By using air hardenig or gas quenching it is feasible to reduce the amount of queching distorsion.

Ovako 277 steels has very good welding properties. The steels high hardenability and good toughness properties provide a heat-affected zone that meets the high stated demands for the bulk material. Ovako 277Q will be classified as a Group 3 steel according to the standard Welding - Guidelines for a metallic materials grouping system (ISO/TR 15608:2005). Depending on heat treatment execution (yield strength) Ovako 277Q may be classified into subgroup 3.1 or 3.2. Maximum hardness that may be obtained in the HAZ of Ovako 277Q will be 450 HV10kg.

(Isotropic Quality) is an isotropic quality ultra clean steel. IQ-Steel is optimized for fatigue strength by a strict control of steel cleanliness. IQ-Steel, a further development of BQ-Steel, is an isotropic and ultra clean steel with properties that match re-melted steels. Based on thousands of examinations by Ovako into the effects of defects on fatigue performance, the metallurgy of IQ-Steel is purer and far more consistent than conventional grades, and designed specifically to perform well in multi axial loading. This enables the manufacturing of lighter, slimmed down components like gears, bearings and other critical parts. The steels are helping our customers to achieve new design solutions and implement higher standards of finished product performance. Key to these practical advantages are Ovako’s own unique, clean and consistent modern steelmaking processes that remove harmful inclusions and impurities from within the steel. IQ-Steels contain smaller and more fragmented inclusions and can handle much higher mechanical forces in all directions than conventional steels. IQ-Steels are newer, but already now well established in high pressure automotive applications. Modern diesel engines, with high and cyclic injection pressures, have proven to be an ideal application. Transmission components are another emerging area of strong interest.

* Designation followed by "*" is not an official EN standard grade but named according to the rules in EN 10027.

Similar designations

16CrMoV8-5, 16CrMoV8-5*

Condition "Q" is water quenched.


CCT - Ovako 277

Steel cleanliness 277

Micro inclusions - 277L   Macro inclusions - 277L
Applied standard ASTM E45 Applied standard

ISO 3763

(Blue fracture)

Sampling ASTM A295 Sampling Statistical testing on billets.


average limits

A B C D Limits < 5 mm/dm2
Th He Th He Th He Th He
2,0 1,5 1,0 0,5 0 0 0,5 0,5
Micro inclusions - 277Q   Macro inclusions - 277Q
Applied standard DIN 50602  K1 Applied standard

ISO 3763

(Blue fracture)

10 M Hz UST

(Ovako internal procedure)

Sampling Six random samples from final product dimension Sampling Statistical testing on billets

The limit is dimension dependent. The average rating of six samples should not exceed the

limits given in the graph

Limits < 1 mm/dm2

< 10 defects/dm3 

> 0,2 mm FBH 




Welding properties


Other properties (typical values)

Youngs module (GPa)Poisson´s ratio (-)Shear module (GPa)Density (kg/m3)
210 0.3 80 7800
 Average CTE 20-300°C (µm/m°K) Specific heat capacity 50/100°C (J/kg°K) Thermal conductivity Ambient temperature (W/m°K) Electrical resistivityAmbient temperature (µΩm)
 12  460 - 480  40 - 45  0.20 - 0.25

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The information in this document is for illustrative purposes only. The data and examples are only general recommendations and not a warranty or a guarantee. The suitability of a product for a specific application can be confirmed only by Ovako once given the actual conditions.The purchaser of an Ovako product has the responsibility to ascertain and control the applicability of the products before using them. Continuous development may necessitate changes in technical data without notice. This document is only valid for Ovako material. Other material, covering the same international specifications, does not necessarily comply with the properties presented in this document.