Ovako possess three metallurgical production sites, all three metallurgies are based on ferrous scrap melting in electric arc furnaces and refining in ladle furnaces. The casting method in the Hofors site is ingot casting, continuous casting is used in Imatra (blooms) and in Smedjebacken (billets).
Ingot casting can produce the largest sizes, cast billets makes it possible to produce small bar sizes with few process steps.A reduction ratio of 3:1 is achieved for the 520 mm forged billet, when forged from the 8,4 ton ingot.(Cast cross section area: Rolled / Forged cross section area.) A reduction ratio of 8:1 is achieved for 180 mm bar when rolled from the 4,2 ton ingot, from bloom casting 135 mm and from billet casting 80 mm.
Ingot and bloom cast materials are vacuum degassed in the melted state for removal of hydrogen, as cast billets can be diffusion annealed for hydrogen removal.